Video: The U.S. Air
Force suspended Reaper drone operations in the Seychelles after two crashes in
the past year. The Washington Post’s Craig Whitlock has obtained previously
unreleased photographs from Air Force investigative reports showing what
happened to the drones involved.
The U.S. Air Force drone, on a classified
spy mission over the Indian Ocean, was destined for disaster from the
An inexperienced military contractor in shorts and a T-shirt, flying by
remote control from a trailer at Seychelles International Airport, committed
blunder after blunder in six minutes on April 4.
He sent the unarmed
MQ-9 Reaper drone off without permission from the control tower. A
minute later, he yanked the wrong lever at his console, killing the engine
without realizing why.
As he tried to make an emergency landing, he forgot to put down the
wheels. The $8.9 million aircraft belly-flopped on the runway, bounced and
plunged into the tropical waters at the airport’s edge, according to a
previously undisclosed Air Force accident investigation report.
The drone crashed at a civilian airport that serves a half-million
passengers a year, most of them sun-seeking tourists. No one was hurt, but
it was the
second Reaper accident in five months — under eerily similar
“I will be blunt here. I said, ‘I can’t believe this is happening
again,’ ” an Air Force official at the scene told investigators afterward.
He added: “You go, ‘How stupid are you?’ ”
The April wreck was the latest in a rash of U.S. military drone crashes
at overseas civilian airports in the past two years. The accidents reinforce
concerns about the risks of flying the robot aircraft outside war zones,
including in the United States.
A review of thousands of pages of unclassified Air Force investigation
reports, obtained by The Washington Post under public-records requests,
shows that drones flying from civilian airports have been plagued by
Among the problems repeatedly cited are pilot error, mechanical failure,
software bugs in the “brains” of the aircraft and poor coordination with
civilian air-traffic controllers.
On Jan. 14, 2011, a Predator drone crashed off the Horn of Africa while
trying to return to an international airport next to
a U.S. military base in Djibouti. It was the first known accident
involving a Predator or Reaper drone near a civilian airport. Predators and
Reapers can carry satellite-guided missiles and have become
the Obama administration’s primary weapon against al-Qaeda and other
Since then, at least six more Predators and Reapers have crashed in the
vicinity of civilian airports overseas, including other instances in which
contractors were at the controls.
The mishaps have become more common at a time when the Pentagon and
domestic law-enforcement agencies are pressing the Federal Aviation
Administration to open U.S. civil airspace to surveillance drones.
The FAA permits drone flights only in rare cases, citing the risk of
midair collisions. The Defense Department can fly Predators and Reapers on
training and testing missions in restricted U.S. airspace near military
The pressure to fly drones in the same skies as passenger planes will
only increase as the war in Afghanistan winds down and the military and CIA
redeploy their growing fleets of Predators and Reapers. Last year, the
military began flying unarmed Reapers from
a civilian airport in Ethiopia to spy in next-door Somalia.
In a Nov. 20 speech in Washington, Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta said
the Pentagon would expand its use of the unmanned attack planes
“outside declared combat zones” as it pursues al-Qaeda supporters in
Africa and the Middle East.
“These enhanced capabilities will enable us to be more flexible and agile
against a threat that has grown more diffuse,” Panetta said.
The Air Force says that its drones are safe and that crash rates
have declined as the military fine-tunes the new technology. Mishap rates
for Predators have fallen to levels comparable to F-16 fighter jets at same
stage in their development, according to the Air Force Safety Center at
Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico.
‘Backlash and repercussion’
In Djibouti, five Predators have crashed since the Air Force began
ramping up drone operations there to combat terrorist groups in nearby Yemen
Many of the mechanical breakdowns have been peculiar to drones.
On May 7, 2011, an armed Predator suffered an electrical malfunction that
sent it into a death spiral about a mile offshore from Djibouti City, the
capital, which has about 600,000 residents. “I’m just glad we landed it in
the ocean and not someplace else,” a crew member told investigators.
Ten days later, another Predator missed the runway by nearly three miles
and crashed near a residential area. The aircraft was carrying a live
Hellfire missile, but it did not detonate and no one was injured.
Another close call came March 15, 2011. An armed Predator came in too
steep and fast for landing, overshot the runway and slammed into a fence.
Investigators attributed that accident to a melted throttle part, but
they also blamed pilot error. They said the remote-
control pilot was “inattentive” and “confused” during the landing. Because
he was isolated inside a ground-control station, the report added, he did
not notice the wind rush or high engine pitch that might have warned a pilot
in a manned aircraft to slow down.
In Djibouti, the Air Force drones operate from Camp Lemonnier, a
fast-growing U.S. military base devoted to counterterrorism. The base is
adjacent to Djibouti’s international airport and shares a single runway with
That has led to miscommunications and tensions with Djiboutian civil
aviation officials. One unidentified U.S. officer told investigators last
year that he often had to sternly remind his fellow troops that civilians
were in charge of the site.
“There is a need to understand the urgency that this airport doesn’t
belong to us,” he said. “Every time that we cause a delay or they miss
flight times and connecting flights, there’s a big backlash and
In addition to the five Predator wrecks in Djibouti, the officer said he
had witnessed three emergency landings that narrowly avoided catastrophe. “I
have no illusions that this won’t happen again, whether it’s an MQ-1 or
otherwise,” he said, referring to the military code name for a Predator.
Meanwhile, U.S. drone crews complained to investigators about the
Djiboutian air-traffic controllers, saying they speak poor English, are
tempered” and are uncomfortable with Predators in their airspace.
According to the crew members, the Djiboutian controllers give priority to
passenger planes and order drone pilots to keep their aircraft circling
overhead even when they are dangerously low on fuel.
In the Seychelles, an idyllic archipelago that lured Prince William
and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, for their honeymoon, the U.S. military
began flying Reapers in 2009.
Crews set up shop at an unmarked hangar at the international airport
outside the capital, Victoria, named after another British royal.
operation started with four Reapers that spied on pirates at sea and
terrorism suspects on land in Somalia, about 800 miles away. It was also an
experiment to test new technology for operating the drones.
Normally, Reapers and Predators are flown through satellite links by
pilots based in the United States, while local ground crews handle the
takeoffs and landings. In the Seychelles, however, the flights did not
require a satellite link; details of the new technology remain classified.
Starting in September 2011, records show, the U.S. Air Force took the
unusual step of outsourcing the entire operation to a Florida-based private
contractor, Merlin RAMCo. By then, the Seychelles operation had
dwindled to two Reapers after the other aircraft were redeployed.
The military drew up the surveillance missions, but Merlin RAMCo hired
its own remote-control pilots, sensor operators and mechanics, and
dispatched them to the islands.
The arrangement was overseen at a distance by the Air Force’s secretive
645th Aeronautical Systems Group at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near
Dayton, Ohio. The unit, also known as Big Safari, develops and acquires
advanced weapons systems — many of them classified — for Special Operations
A spokesman for the Big Safari program declined to comment on the Reaper
operations in the Seychelles or its contract with Merlin RAMCo, citing
“security concerns.” Lt. Col. Brett Ashworth, an Air Force spokesman at the
Pentagon, said the service does not “currently” use contractors to fly
drones on “combat operations,” but he declined to elaborate.
Merlin RAMCo, based in Jacksonville, Fla., is a privately held company
that was incorporated in 2006, records show. The firm’s vice president and
general manager, Robert A. Miller Jr., did not return phone calls or an
e-mail seeking comment.
The company supports Air Force missions and other government contracts
with more than 80 employees at 14 locations in the United States and five
sites overseas, according to the Air Force.
The contractor was subjected to little direct oversight in the
Seychelles, records show. The Air Force posted two officials on the islands
to coordinate flights and serve as a liaison with the contractor, but
neither had experience operating drones.
Underscoring the secrecy of the operation, neither official was allowed
to have a copy of Big Safari’s contract with Merlin RAMCo.
“You can imagine it’s awful hard to hold somebody accountable for
compliance with a contract that you physically can’t see,” one of the Air
Force representatives told investigators.
The other liaison officer told investigators that the whole idea of
outsourcing drone flights made him uneasy. “In hindsight, it appears it may
not have been the best way to conduct business,” he said.
Seychelles program halted
After Merlin RAMCo took charge, the two Reapers deployed to the Seychelles
quickly became hobbled by problems.
In November 2011, the Air Force liaison officers grounded the drones after
discovering that they had not received required mechanical upgrades. Just days
after the aircraft resumed flying, on Dec. 13, one of the Reapers ran into
Two minutes after takeoff, the engine failed. The pilot was unable to
restart it and tried to execute an emergency landing. But the aircraft, which
was not armed at the time, descended too quickly and landed too far down the
runway. It bounced past a perimeter road, over a rock breakwater and sank
about 200 feet offshore.
Investigators blamed the crash on an electrical short and concluded that
the pilot made things worse by botching the landing.
In February, the remaining Reaper was struck by lightning while in flight.
The crew was able to steer it home safely, but mechanics grounded the plane
for a month to make repairs.
A few days after resuming operations, a different Merlin RAMCo pilot, with
limited experience in takeoffs and landings, erred in every way imaginable
during the brief flight before crashing the Reaper. Contractors worked for
days to fish all the parts out of the water.
The Seychelles and U.S. governments announced a suspension of drone flights
afterward, but they didn’t mention that there wasn’t much choice — no intact
Reapers were left on the island.
U.S. Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, who met with Seychelles officials a few
days later, pledged a “thorough and fully transparent” investigation of the
The accidents, nonetheless, stirred worry among some islanders.
In a letter to the Seychelles Nation newspaper, resident James R. Mancham
questioned whether civil aviation officials had “seriously examined the
implications” of allowing drones to fly from Seychelles International Airport.
“What guarantee do we have that never will one of these drones crash upon
or collide with an approaching or departing plane or crash on the air-control
tower itself?” Mancham wrote.
Tom Saunders, a spokesman for the U.S. military’s Africa Command, said the
Air Force has not flown drones from the Seychelles since April. He declined to
comment on whether it planned to resume the flights.
Jean-Paul Adam, the foreign minister of the Seychelles, said the U.S.
military has not shared the results of the crash investigations. He said the
U.S. government has indicated that it would like to restart the operations but
has not said when.
Adam cautioned that the Seychelles Civil Aviation Authority would need to
review the investigation results but said his government was amenable toward a
return of the drones.
“The two crashes were obviously of concern,” he said in a telephone
interview. “But I would say the approach we’ve had with the United States has
been one of good cooperation.”